In order to measure the operating performance extending over several periods, key performance measures are „adjusted“ where applicable. Adjusted measures are labelled with “after adjustments”. A reconciliation table is available within the respective quarterly or annual report and presents the composition of special items.
Before special items
In order to measure the operating performance extending over several periods, key performance measures are adjusted by special items, where applicable. Adjusted measures are labelled with “before special items”. A reconciliation table is available within the respective quarterly or annual report and presents the composition of special items.
Financial key figure that shows the net balance of incoming and outgoing payments during a reporting period.
Cash flow before acquisitions and dividends
Fresenius uses the cash flow before acquisitions and dividends as the financial measure for free cash flow. Cash flow before acquisitions and dividends is calculated by operating cash flow less investments (net). Net investments are calculated by payments for the purchase of property, plant and equipment less proceeds from the sale of property, plant and equipment.
Cash flow from financing activities
Cash flow from financing activities is a financial measure showing how the investments of the reporting period were financed.
Cash flow from financing activities is calculated from additions to equity plus proceeds from the exercise of stock options, less dividends paid, plus proceeds from debt increase (loans, bonds, etc.), less repayments of debt, plus the change in noncontrolling interest, plus proceeds from the hedge of exchange rate effects due to corporate financing.
Cash flow from investing activities
Cash flow from investing activities is a financial measure opposing payments for the acquisition or purchase of property, plant and equipment and investments versus proceeds from the sale of property, plant and equipment and investments.
Constant currencies for income and expenses are calculated using prior-year average rates; constant currencies for assets and liabilities are calculated using the mid-closing rate on the date of the respective statement of financial position.
CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility)
CSR refers to the social responsibility of companies. Their operations can affect economic, social, and environmental conditions all over the world.
DSO (Days Sales Outstanding)
Indicates the average number of days it takes for a receivable to be paid.
EBIT (Earnings before Interest and Taxes)
EBIT does include depreciation and write-ups on property, plant and equipment.
EBIT is calculated by subtracting cost of sales, selling, general and administrative expenses, and research and development expenses from sales.
EBIT margin is calculated as the ratio of EBIT to sales.
EBITDA (Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization)
EBITDA is calculated from EBIT by adding depreciations recognized in income and deducting write-ups recognized in income, both on intangible assets as well as property, plant and equipment.
EBITDA margin is calculated as the ratio of EBITDA to sales.
Net debt / EBITDA
Net debt / EBITDA is a financial measure reflecting the ability of Fresenius to fulfill its payment obligations. Net debt and EBITDA are calculated at LTM (last 12 month) average exchange rates respectively.
Calculation of net debt:
+ Short-term debt from related parties
+ Current portion of long-term debt and capital lease obligations
+ Current portion of Senior Notes
+ Long-term debt and capital lease obligations, less current portion
+ Senior Notes, less current portion
+ Convertible bonds
- less cash and cash equivalents
= Net debt
Net Operating Profit After Taxes (NOPAT) is calculated from operating income (EBIT), as stated in the profit and loss statement, less income taxes.
Operating cash flow
Operating cash flow is a financial measure showing cash inflows from operating activities during a period. Operating cash flow is calculated by subtracting non-cash income and adding non-cash expenses to net income.
Growth that is generated by a company’s existing businesses and not by acquisitions, divestitures, or foreign exchange impact.
ROE (Return on Equity)
Measure of a corporation’s profitability revealing how much profit a company generates with the money shareholders have invested.
ROE is calculated by fiscal year’s net income / total equity × 100.
ROIC (Return on Invested Capital)
Calculated by: (EBIT - taxes) / Invested capital.
Invested capital = total assets + accumulated amortization of goodwill - deferred tax assets - cash and cash equivalents - trade accounts payable - accruals (without pension accruals) - other liabilities not bearing interest.
ROOA (Return on Operating Assets)
Calculated as the ratio of EBIT to operating assets (average).
Operating assets = total assets - deferred tax assets - trade accounts payable - cash held in trust - payments received on account - approved subsidies.
SOI (Scope of Inventory)
Indicates the average number of days between receiving goods as inventory and the sale of the finished product.
Calculated by: (Inventories / Costs of goods sold) × 365 days.
Current assets (including deferred assets) - accruals - trade accounts payable - other liabilities - deferred charges.
Health care terms / Products and services
A medical technology in which the blood of a person is passed through a device that separates out one particular blood component and returns the remainder to the circulation. This technology is used for the collection of various blood components by donors, as well as for therapeutic applications for patients.
The active pharmaceutical ingredient of the generic product is the same as that of the reference product. Both are therefore interchangeable with each other.
A biosimilar is a drug that is “similar” to another biologic drug already approved.
Combination of classic therapy approaches with digital offers
Blood volume substitutes
They are used for the temporary stabilization and / or maintenance of blood volume, for example, in the event of major blood loss.
CAR T cell therapy
In this therapy form, the immune cells of patients are collected, genetically modified, and reinfused into the patient with better characteristics than before. In the patient’s body, they activate the immune system and destroy cancer cells.
Cue is an automated cell processing system capable of washing, concentrating, and preparing white blood cell suspensions for cryopreservation (freezing in liquid nitrogen) and/or dispensing into final containers.
Form of renal replacement therapy where a semipermeable membrane – in peritoneal dialysis the peritoneum of the patient, in hemo dialysis the membrane of the dialyzer – is used to clean a patient’s blood.
The hemo dialysis process is controlled by a dialysis machine, which pumps blood, adds anticoagulants, regulates the cleansing process, and controls the mixture of dialysate and its flow rate through the system.
Dialysis solution / Dialysate
Fluid used in the process of dialysis in order to remove the filtered out substances and excess water from the blood.
Special filter used in hemo dialysis for removing toxic substances, waste products of metabolic processes, and excess water from the blood. The dialyzer is sometimes referred to as the “artificial kidney”.
DRG flat rate per case
The Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) is a flat rate per case and forms the basis for the reimbursement of inpatients treated in German hospitals.
Application of liquid nutrition as a tube or sip feed via the gastrointestinal tract.
FDA (U.S. Food & Drug Administration)
Official authority for food observation and drug registration in the United States.
A treatment method for dialysis patients where the blood of the patient is cleansed by a dialyzer. The solute exchange between blood and dialysate is dominated by diffusive processes.
The ability of an antigen to cause an immune response (immunization, sensitization).
The suppression of the body’s own defense system.
LOVO is a cell processing system to wash differentiated and undifferentiated white blood cells for laboratory and research use. It is designed to offer a simple, fast and automated method to remove supernatant, add and reduce volume in a fully closed system.
Medicare / Medicaid
A program developed by the federal U.S. Social Security Administration that reimburses health insurance companies and providers of medical services for medical care to individuals over 65, people with chronic kidney failure, or the disabled.
The multi-chamber bag contains all the macronutrients like amino acids, glucose, and lipids, as well as electrolytes, in separate chambers. Immediately before infusion, all nutrients are mixed thoroughly within the bag simply by opening individual chambers. This reduces the risk of contamination and saves time when preparing the infusions.
Interdisciplinary facility for outpatient care, managed by physicians. The responsible body of a medical care center includes all service providers (such as physicians, pharmacists, health care facilities) that are authorized to treat patients with statutory health insurance.
Application of nutrients directly into the bloodstream of the patient (intravenously). This is necessary if the condition of a patient does not allow them to absorb and metabolize essential nutrients orally or as sip and tube feed in a sufficient quantity.
PD (Peritoneal dialysis)
Dialysis treatment method using the patient’s peritoneum as a filter to cleanse their blood.
The effect of the drug on the body.
The effect of the body on the drug.
PPP (public-private partnership model)
Public-private partnership describes a government service or private business venture that is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private-sector companies. In most cases, PPP accompanies a part-privatization of governmental services.
Number of all patients who suffer from a specific disease within a defined period. The prevalence rate indicates the number of people with this specific disease (e.g., terminal kidney failure) treated per million population.
An injection of vaccines or drugs into the subcutaneous fat tissue.
The telematics infrastructure is intended to network all those involved in the German health care system and enable a secure exchange of information across sectors and systems.
The Spanish Association for Standardization, UNE, is the body legally responsible for the development of standards in Spain. It is the Spanish representative in ISO.